The US FDA has lately approved Pazopanib Hydrochloride to be used as a treatment for kidney cancer. The drug is marketed in the US under the trade name Votrient.
GlaxoSmithKline is credited with developing Pazopanib. Pazopanib was approved by the Food and Drug Administration or the FDA, in 2009 for treatment of Renal Cell Carcinoma or RCC and is taken orally as a small pill.
Each year more than 58,240 (2010) adults in the United States are diagnosed with renal cell carcinoma (RCC), the most common form of all kidney cancers. RCC is often referred to as conventional revan cell carcinmoa and occasionally clear cell renal cell carcinmoa. This condition is responsible for 85% of all kidney cancers and kills more than 13,000 Americans yearly. The condition is slightly more prominent in African Americans and people of Northern European descent but there are no immunities. The diesease is also more common in males with twice as many males suffering from the condition as females. Stats also exhibit that RCC is the 10th biggest killer cancer in the US for males over the age of 18.
Research has shown that there are various risk factors that will increase the pace of the development of the disease but the cause is yet to be found. When it is just starting out, canerous cells will infect the inner lining of the tinier tubules directly within your kidney. As these cells procreate, they will form together to create a cancerous tumor and will suck the oxygen and other bodily nutrients from the surrounding tissues. Cells can also break off and float through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. There are many places that these celss can end up such as the pancreas or colon but the most common locations are the lungs and liver. The survival rate varies and is mostly determined by what stage the cancer was detected at.
An succesful multi-national placebo based trial of the drug's completion was what enabled Pazopanib's FDA approval as well as establishing renal cell carcinoma life expectancy. This was the variety of drug test in which neither the patient nor the treating Dr. knows if they are being given the test compound or the placebo. It is designed this way and the patients who receive the drug are chosen at random, helping to create a fair study with no bias or misleading facts.
The research involved two groups of patients with renal cell carcinoma: those who were previously treated with cytokine therapy and a second group which had not. A total of 435 patients were enrolled in the study; they split these patients with 290 test subjects being prescribed pazopnib and 190 test subjects being given a placebo. The study was searching for information on whether or not the test subjects cancer infection worsened and at what point during or after treatment this happened. The median PFS for patients who had received the treatment was 9.2 months and people who received the placebo only achieved 4.2 months, the cytokine therapy made no difference. By the time the end of the tiral came around, 40% of the test subjects that were involved in the trial passed away. On the other hand, as much 30% of the test subjects showed a partial or total remission of their cancer that were treated with pazobanib. This figure dropped to 3% for patients who were treated with the placebo. The scienties were eager to find the "duration of response" in this trial, or how long the cancerous tumor shrank for before it started growing again. The median duration in this study was 13.5 months.
One thing that was noticed within the two groups is that they suffered different side effects to the treatments. The adverse reactions included abnormal liver function, high blood pressure, diarrhea, and too much protein in the urine. When these patients were cardiac response was measured, some also suffered altered EEG readings. This specific side effect is shared between many different drugs too though.
It was noted that liver failure caused two of the test subject's death during the trial duration. On the label of the drug when prescribed, it mentions potential issues with hepatic dysfuntion because of these cases. When a patient is starting a course of treatment with pazopanib, it is required to have tests on your liver function monthly to look out for any signs of this. In a case where a patient has a track record of problems with their liver, it is well-advised to modify the dosage to minimise any risk. The FDA also recommends that doctors monitor heart function and electrolytes during treatment.